DepEd's Spiral Curriculum II
Browsing through DepEd's curriculum guide for science, one can pick from the grade level standards elements that are related to chemistry:
Grade 3: Students will learn that things may be solid, liquid or gas while others may give off light, heat and sound.
Grade 4: After investigating, learners will identify materials that do not decay and use this knowledge to help minimize waste at home, school, and in the community. They will also investigate changes in the properties of materials when these are subjected to different conditions.
Grade 5: After investigating, learners will decide whether materials are safe and useful based on their properties. They will also infer that new materials may form when there are changes in properties. Learners will recognize that different materials react differently with heat, light, and sound. They will relate these abilities of materials to their specific uses.
Grade 6: Learners will recognize that when mixed together, materials do not form new ones thus these materials may be recovered using different separation techniques. Learners will also prepare useful mixtures such as food, drinks and herbal medicines.
Grade 7: Learners will recognize the system of classification of matter through semi-guided investigations but emphasizing fair testing.
Grade 8: Learners will explain the behavior of matter in terms of the particles it is made of. They will also recognize that ingredients in food and medical products are made up of these particles and are absorbed by the body in the form of ions.
Grade 9: Learners will explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They will also recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may arise from such rearrangements.
Grade 10: Learners will recognize the importance of controlling the conditions under which a phenomenon or reaction occurs. They will also recognize that cells and tissues of the human body are made up of water, a few kinds of ions, and biomolecules. These biomolecules may also be found in the food they eat.
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One of these differences is very important. The word "stoichiometry" cannot be found in DepEd's K to 12 curriculum guide. Tai, Ward and Sadler, in a study published in the Journal of Chemical Education ("High school chemistry content background of introductory college chemistry students and its association with college chemistry grades." J. Chem. Ed., 2006, 83(11), 1703-1711.), found that of all the topics that high school chemistry covers, only "stoichiometry" is found to be a good predictor of college chemistry performance. They arrived at this conclusion from a survey of more than 3000 students across the United States. The statistical analysis shows convincingly that performance in introductory courses in chemistry in college is strongly correlated with how well stoichiometry was covered in high school. And excerpts from individual responses from students provided a glimpse of the underlying reason behind this strong correlation:
I think stoichiometry gave a lot of kids trouble so I think my fairly strong background with that gave me a heads up.
...stoichiometry—I learned that really well in high school and I remembered it all throughout chemistry.
...knowledge about stoichiometry from high school chemistry helped me most.
I’d have to say stoichiometry because quite a few people had problems with that.”
...stoichiometry and the ability to apply conversions helped the most.
...most helpful was the depth [with which] we covered stoichiometry....
- N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
|Examples of Lewis acid-base equilibria.|
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