A blog that tackles issues on basic education (in the Philippines and the United States) including early childhood education, the teaching profession, math and science education, medium of instruction, poverty, and the role of research and higher education.
Free College Education Is Not Free
Politicians make promises. Of course, a lot of voters are also quite cynical. There are, however, promises that are obviously difficult to keep. There are also promises that may be attractive at first, but after a thoughtful analysis, may actually end up hurting society. One example is free tuition in state colleges. We in fact have heard this from Bernie Sanders in the US. In the Philippines, there is a bill currently filed in the Senate for free college in state universities and colleges (SUCs). Appealing this proposal maybe, free college education is not free.
Such bill is actually as bad as the DepEd K+12 law passed in 2013. One glaring similarity between the two is the lack of consideration for what is necessary to implement the law. Another is its complete neglect of unintended consequences. And lastly, although both claim to help the poor, these measures will make matters worse.
Free college education is not free. Similar to basic education, it requires input or resources, which are funded either through taxes or foreign loans. The teaching resources required for higher education are also different from those necessary for elementary and high school education. Teaching in a college or university requires scholarship, after all, higher education means exploring the frontiers of human knowledge. Higher education also differs from basic education because the former values the experience more than the degree it provides. A higher education institution is a community of teachers and scholars. The inputs necessary to support a college or university are therefore vastly different from that of basic education. The highly skilled workforce required to keep an institution of higher education running amounts to substantial costs. There are a few countries in the world that do offer college free of tuition. Ironically, these are also the same countries that have lower percentages of their population with a college degree. Both France and Germany, countries that have free colleges, have lower college-educated adults than the United States, Japan, South Korea, and Canada, countries that do not have free colleges.
And as in any advertisements that we hear on the radio, there are details at the end that actually warrant more our attention. In Germany, for instance, tracking begins early in basic education such that enrollment in colleges becomes very selective. This, of course, becomes a necessary evil because of the plain fact that no country can really afford to give college education to everyone. In the case of the Philippines, the country cannot even provide for the senior high school years. Therefore, selection is necessary. Interestingly, the tracking introduced in DepEd's K to 12 is already in place. Free college education only hurts the poor as much needed resources for basic education are going to be stretched even further. And, of course, schools that serve primarily poor children are the first to suffer. If poor students cannot even finish high school, offering free college is really an empty promise meant to get popular votes but no fruitful action.
The bill in front of the Philippines Senate claims to help poor students who want to finish college. Poor students are already failing in basic education. It is then very highly unlikely for these students to even apply for college admissions. There are indeed some poor students who are able to beat the odds. It is more prudent then to ensure that these students receive full scholarships and living allowances than to offer free college education to all.
Unintended consequences are also present. Governments are often incapable of raising the quality of education. There is ample evidence out there. Quality in higher education is sure to suffer when it does not have the funding necessary for its operations. Private institutions of higher learning are going to be forced to close as their student enrollments plummet. Will the government then resort to handing vouchers for those who wish to enter a private college?
The Philippines must focus its limited resources in tackling the problems of basic education first. The biggest problem in higher education in the Philippines is quality not accessibility. Quality must be addressed first. Doing otherwise only creates two monstrous disasters.
There is information to be gained from data. Tests in schools can be informative. Scores of students provide a quick glimpse of the current state of education. Thus, it is useful to have these numbers. These numbers may not tell everything in detail with high accuracy. Nevertheless, test results allow for a useful perspective. The National Achievement Test administered by the Department of Education (DepEd) in the Philippines, a set of standardized tests addressing the major subjects taught in school, is an example. These tests are given to Grade 3 where students are assessed in both English and Filipino (These two subjects comprise two thirds of the exam) and Math and Science (These two account for the remaining one third). A different set of tests is given to Grade 6 pupils where each of the following 5 subjects is assigned 40 items: (Science, Math, English, Filipino and Social Studies). Another set is administered to fourth year high school students (This is currently the last year
MGA TANONG AT SAGOT HINGGIL SA Kto12 PROGRAM NG GOBYERNO NG PILIPINAS Posted on May 28, 2012 by David Michael San Juan MGA TANONG AT SAGOT HINGGIL SA Kto12 PROGRAM NG GOBYERNO NG PILIPINAS (Paunawa: Simpleng lenggwahe ang ginamit sa artikulong ito upang madaling maintindihan ng mayorya.) For the full English version please visit http://www.scribd.com/david_juan_1/d/70033985-San-Juan-David-Michael-Full-Paper-Kto12 TANONG: ANO ANG KTO12 PROGRAM? SAGOT: Ang Kto12 Program ng gobyerno ng Pilipinas ay tumutukoy sa pagkakaroon ng mandatory o required na kindergarten at karagdagang 2 taon sa dating 10-year Basic Education Cycle. Kung noon, pagkatapos ng anim na taon sa elementarya at apat na taon sa hayskul (kabuuang 10 taon) ay maaari nang makapagkolehiyo ang mga estudyante. Sa ilalim ng Kto12, bago makapagkolehiyo, kailangan pa nilang dumaan sa karagdagang 2 taon pagkatapos ng apat na taong hayskul. Sa bagong sistema, tinatawag na senior high school o junior
With the new K to 12 curriculum of the Philippine basic education system, questions are now raised regarding how tertiary education should be modified to fit the changes in Philippine high schools. The focus is on general education requirements. Currently, as Isagani Cruz explains in his MINI CRITIQUE , The Philippine Star, March 22, 2012 ; There are two General Education Curricula (GECs) – GEC-A and GEC-B. GEC-A (taken by students majoring in the humanities, social sciences, or communication) requires 63 units (that is, hours per week for a semester or trimester) divided into 24 units of language and literature, 15 units of mathematics and natural sciences, 6 units of humanities, 12 units of social sciences, and 6 units of mandated subjects. GEC-A was promulgated by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Memorandum Order (CMO) 59, series of 1996. GEC-B (taken by all other students) requires 21 units of language and humanities, 15 units of mathematics, natural sciences, an