Teaching Science: What Works?
|Above copied from FOSS Introduction|
An example of a module from FOSS is the following:
|To view the description of this module, click here|
|Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Hanley, P. and Thurston, A. (2014), Experimental evaluations of elementary science programs: A best-evidence synthesis. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 51: 870–901. doi: 10.1002/tea.21139|
Among studies evaluating inquiry-based teaching approaches, programs that used science kits did not show positive outcomes on science achievement measures (weighted ES = +0.02 in 7 studies), but inquiry-based programs that emphasized professional development but not kits did show positive outcomes (weighted ES = +0.36 in 10 studies).What this implies is that the teacher remains at the heart of learning. To understand further what these findings mean, Slavin and coworkers write:
...the programs that focus primarily on improving daily instruction on all objectives, not just those that are the focus of provided science materials, may help teachers teach the entire range of science objectives more effectively. That is, a teacher who learns to make effective, daily use of cooperative learning, or conceptually challenging content, or science-reading integration, can take advantage of these new skills every day, for every objective. Elementary science teachers need to develop pedagogical content knowledge, which means knowing how to make science content meaningful, useful, and engaging....It shows why it is important to demand evidence. It is only through research-based evidence that we may find what really counts in education....