A blog that tackles issues on basic education (in the Philippines and the United States) including early childhood education, the teaching profession, math and science education, medium of instruction, poverty, and the role of research and higher education.
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Factors that Influence Student Achievement
This post is a follow up to "Why the best stay on top in the latest math and science tests". The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center at Boston College not only provides standard tests but also data that allow to pinpoint factors that affect student outcomes. With the exams, contextual data are collected from students, teachers and schools, which then provide an avenue for understanding how school factors influence learning outcomes. From the 2011 results, the following factors are shown to be important:
adequate school resources for teaching the subjects
a school climate for academic success
teacher preparation in both content and pedagogy
engaging classroom instruction
Having sufficient classrooms (space) and teaching staff characterize students who have higher achievements. Schools whose students do well are those with teachers who have hardly reported any resource storage like overcrowding, inadequate work space, and supplies required to conduct classrooms. The school climate must support academic success. It must focus on achieving academic goals and provide an environment that is conducive to learning. Bullying in school has a strong negative effect on student performance highlighting the need for a school to be a safe and orderly environment for children. A well prepared teaching force is necessary for student achievement. Teacher quality comes from good preparation in subject content as well as pedagogy. But preparation is only one part. Experience counts - good students come from classes whose teachers have ten years of experience. And equally important, satisfaction in career counts. A teacher who is happy produces better students. The following video from YouTube provided by the International Study Center provides an excellent overview of how these factors affect learning outcomes:
The International Study Center has also provided encyclopedias detailing both data and exam results obtained from the participating countries:
Congestion means overcrowding. In simple terms, there is too much in too little space or time. To avoid congestion one can either increase space or time, or reduce whatever is taking space or time. In introducing K to 12 to the Philippines, the Department of Education made the claim, "...the sad state of basic education can be partly attributed to the congested basic education curriculum." A closer examination of DepEd's K to 12, however, reveals not a decongestion, but a reduction of instructional hours across the first ten years of education.
Here are the changes for elementary school:
There is a reduction in both languages and mathematics of about 10 percent in instructional time. Below are the changes in secondary school:
Here, the decrease in instructional hours is even greater. Science, for instance suffers a 33 percent reduction. Adding two years to basic education may indeed look good on paper as a way of decongesting the curriculum. However, if the first ten yea…
TANONG: ANO ANG KTO12 PROGRAM? SAGOT: Ang Kto12 Program ng gobyerno ng Pilipinas ay tumutukoy sa pagkakaroon ng mandatory o required na kindergarten at karagdagang 2 taon sa dating 10-year Basic Education Cycle. Kung noon, pagkatapos ng anim na taon sa elementarya at apat na taon sa hayskul (kabuuang 10 taon) ay maaari nang makapagkolehiyo ang mga estudyante. Sa ilalim ng Kto12, bago makapagkolehiyo, kailangan pa nilang dumaan sa karagdagang 2 taon pagkatapos ng apat na taong hayskul. Sa bagong sistema, tinatawag na senior high school o junior college ang karagdagang 2 tao…
With the new K to 12 curriculum in the Philippines, various tracks are now offered in the last two years of basic education. The various options available obviously make it possible for students to find themselves later unprepared for the courses they decide to take in college. A student, for instance, who finishes the accounting business management (ABM) strand in the senior high school academic track, is now required to take additional courses if the student chooses to enroll in a Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) major in college. These additional courses which are now called "bridging programs" are either taken during the first year of college or over several weeks in the summer before college starts.
There are bridging programs in the United States, but these are different from the ones that are now appearing in colleges in the Philippines. In Coldwater High School in Michigan, for example, the "bridging program" is an option for students…