Fathers Are Needed in Basic Education
This conclusion comes from a recent study done by Raj Chetty and coworkers. The conclusion is quite specific. Fathers are important not just any adult. A father must be present not only in a child's family since the effect is seen regardless of whether a child has a father or not. What seems to matter is that there is a substantial number of fathers in the neighborhood. This finding is illustrated in the following graph:
|Above copied from Chetty et al. (2018)|
There is a clear correlation between employment rate and the percentage of black children with the number of fathers present. And this correlation is present even with children who do not live with a father. What apparently matters is that there is a large number of fathers in a neighborhood. It is more of a neighborhood than a family effect. What is amazing is that white children outcomes are also positively affected (although more mildly) by the percentage of black children with a father present in the community.
The above perhaps demonstrates that it does take a village to raise a child. The neighborhood counts. And the number of male adults who are involved in raising children in a community matters.