This is shown convincingly in the following graph:
|Above copied from|
OECD (2016), PISA 2015 Results (Volume I): Excellence and Equity in Education, OECD Publishing, Paris.
Being fair by extending learning opportunities to all children and achieving excellence in education are clearly not mutually exclusive. One might claim that Japan, Finland, Korea and the Netherlands have much lower income disparities than other countries so naturally, their educational systems are more equitable. One might likewise claim that richer countries can more easily afford equitable education systems. Vietnam shows that this is not necessarily true. Vietnam, a poor and highly socio-economically diverse country, has managed to achieve an excellent yet equitable school system. It is possible even in Science, a subject that is highly demanding on resources.