Determining the effects of either a vocational or general education on employment is not straightforward since tracking in high school is often selective. Students placed in a vocational track often have lower academic scores than students placed in a general education track or college-readiness path. With this bias, it is easy to see why students with vocational education often have lower employment rates than students on an academic track. Thus, it is important to remove this bias before drawing conclusions from employment data based on the type of high school education an individual has completed. Hanushek and coworkers have recently done such an analysis in a paper published in the Journal of Human Resources. And from international data, it is clear that even without selection bias, vocational students have difficulty staying employed.
General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over the Lifecycle*
Skills do become obsolete in a changing job marketplace. Using data from countries where there are clear "apprenticehip" programs, vocational students demonstrate much higher employment rates than students that have gone through general education. However, this turns around in later life.
|Above copied from|
Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger; Zhang, Lei (2011) : General education, vocational education, and labor-market outcomes over the life-cycle, CESifo working paper: Economics of Education, No. 3614
The list of Technical-Vocational-Livelihood Tracks of DepEd's K to 12 is enormous. In Home Economics alone, there are at least five specializations to choose from:
Of course, DepEd maybe hoping that some of these jobs will never become obsolete:
|Above copied from Philippine Online Chronicles|