"Bear in mind that the wonderful things you learn in your schools are the work of many generations, produced by enthusiastic effort and infinite labor in every country of the world. All this is put into your hands as your inheritance in order that you may receive it, honor it, add to it, and one day faithfully hand it to your children. Thus do we mortals achieve immortality in the permanent things which we create in common." - Albert Einstein

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Global Innovation Index - 2014

A new report is available from Cornell University, INSEAD (The Business School for the World) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The report ranks 143 economies around the world using 81 indicators that measure human innovation. The productivity and creativity of a nation depends on its citizens. Thus, a major part of this evaluation looks at education. The ranking highlights the dire situation of education in the Philippines especially when compared to its neighbors in south east Asia. With the upcoming integration of these countries into one economic bloc, the data only forebode a grim predicament for the Philippines.

Overall, the Philippines ranks 100th out of 143 economies:

Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
The above table presents only the countries in East Asia and Oceania Region. The Philippines ranks 15th in this region, well below its neighbors, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. The index uses several indicators grouped under the following seven categories: Institutions, Human Capital and Research, Infrastructure, Market Sophistication, Business Sophistication, Knowledge and Technology Outputs, and Creative Outputs. 
Copied from Global Innovation Index 2014

One main reason why the Philippines does not fare well in this ranking is its poor performance under the Human Capital and Research, under which Education is key:

Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
Being number 132 on Education certainly plays a major part in causing the Philippines to rank 100th place in the global innovation scale. Most of the key indicators under Education pertain to basic education and in each of the specific areas, the Philippines finds itself near the bottom. The first one looks at how much the government spends on education (The number under "Value" on this table is the government's expenditure on education (% of GDP)).
Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
One indicator looks specifically at how much is spent on secondary education (The number under "Value" on this table is the government's expenditure on education per pupil, secondary (% of GDP per capita). The Philippines ranks higher under this category indicating how much lower it really ranks when it comes to spending on primary education.
Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
Another indicator under the category of Education is School Life Expectancy. This measures the number of years of education a citizen receives. This is not the number of years prescribed by an educational system and it includes years in college or post-secondary education. This is the number of years students actually go to school. Thus, this takes into account the rate of school dropouts. 
Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
Another measure of quality education is the pupil:teacher ratio. Under this category, the Philippines likewise compares miserably with other countries:

Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
One last indicator under Education takes into account results from international standardized exams. Since the Philippines has not been participating recently in these exams, this indicator is not applicable. Past participation of the Philippines in international exams, however, puts the country near the bottom as well. Thus, this indicator is highly unlikely to change the ranking of the Philippines under the category of Education.

One can compare the Philippines against another southeast Asian country, Thailand. With this comparison, it becomes very clear why education is clearly what is holding back the Philippines:

Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
The Philippines is behind Thailand in all measures, but it is under Human Capital and Research, that the difference is truly huge. Under Human Capital and Research, here is the comparison:

Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
The figure above shows that the Philippines is lagging behind Thailand in both basic and higher education. Under basic education, the scenario is as follows:
Above figure developed from Global Innovation Index 2014 - Data Analysis
The above takes into account how much a government spends on basic education. In effect, it directly measures how much significance a government gives to education. It also measures outcomes in terms of how well schools are able to keep students. Lastly, it measures how many teachers are in fact available. These numbers are truly alarming because these not only describe what is presently occurring, but paints the future for the country. The Global Innovation Index does not only provide an image for the present. It probably shows likewise the years to come.... 






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