"Bear in mind that the wonderful things you learn in your schools are the work of many generations, produced by enthusiastic effort and infinite labor in every country of the world. All this is put into your hands as your inheritance in order that you may receive it, honor it, add to it, and one day faithfully hand it to your children. Thus do we mortals achieve immortality in the permanent things which we create in common." - Albert Einstein

Thursday, May 31, 2012

K+12, worsening shortages to greet school opening


By ANNE MARXZE D. UMIL







"The Aquino government has yet to present a convincing program to remedy the existing shortages in the education sector. How can basic education qualitatively function amid these dire shortages?” 

– Rep. Raymond Palatino

MANILA – School opening is just a week from now, the Department of Education (DepEd) has started its “Brigada Eskwela” where teachers, as well as parents and students, are mobilized to clean their respective schools in preparation for the coming school year. The DepEd had also announced their preparations on the implementation of the K to 12 program for grade one and grade seven students. However, perennial problems in the basic education system remain.
The K to 12 program is a flagship program of President Benigno “Noynoy” S. Aquino III. With the implementation of the said program, the government aims to improve the quality of basic education in the country.
“We have this new curriculum to be implemented, but shortages are not being addressed so the same problems would just occur this school year,” said France Castro, secretary general of the Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) told Bulatlat.com.
Data from DepEd still shows huge shortages in classrooms, text books, chairs and teachers. According to the latest figures of DepEd, the country still needs an additional 50,921 classrooms, 74,178 teachers, 123,196 toilets, 62.4 million textbooks and about 1.3 million classroom chairs.
On the other hand, Anakbayan lamented, the “Brigada Eskwela” only underscores the government’s neglect of the education sector. “We see parents, teachers, and volunteers helping out to prepare the schools for the class opening. Most of the materials were donated by private institutions and individuals, yet, DepEd is admitting that a lot is still needed. This clearly manifests that the government does not prioritize the education sector,” said Cherry Orendain, spokeswoman of Anakbayan-Davao.

Classrooms in Navotas National High School are not standard size of seven by nine meters, says Regina Ramos, teacher. Every school year, classrooms are jam-packed with students.(Photo by Anne Marxze D. Umil / Bulatlat.com)
Finding way to accommodate students
The Navotas National High School has more than 3,000 students who would be cramped in only 21 classrooms. “Our classroom size is smaller than the standard size of seven meters by nine meters. Last school year 2011 – 2012 our class size was 80 to 90 students. Some were forced to sit outside the classroom,” said high school teacher Regina E. Ramos, 49, who has been teaching for 23 years already.
For school year 2012 -2013, Ramos said, their principal has thought of a scheme or what they call as an alternative delivery mode on how they will conduct their classes. This scheme, Ramos said, is aimed at not only accommodating the new enrollees but also to decongest their small classrooms.
“We have a scheme called in-school, out-school where our class size of 90 will be divided into 45 per shift. And instead of coming to school every day, one shift of 45 students would hold classes every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and the other shift would have classes on Tuesdays and Thursdays. This was approved by the DepEd and the local government as well,” Ramos said in an interview with Bulatlat.com.
Ramos further explained that those students who are not scheduled to go to school on particular days would be given home works. Classes will be held from 6:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. The subject MAPE (Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health) will be held once a week. This is the first time that Navotas National High School will implement such scheme, Ramos said.
“This is the first time that we will do this scheme and hopefully it would be a success. We have no space here in our school to expand. Our new building is not yet finished. If our principal did not think of other ways to accommodate the students, they will be spending their whole school year cramped up in a small classroom. What else would they learn?”
The number of students is increasing year by year; Ramos said they cannot refuse any student. In this way each student could have his or her own chair and teachers can closely monitor them, she added.

With only a week before school opening, the three-story building intended for the increasing number of students is still under construction in Navotas National High School.(Photo by anne Marxze D. Umil / Bulatlat.com)
A three-story building is still under construction in the Navotas National High School. In the new building, classrooms would have the standard size of seven by nine meters. “This would address the classroom shortages.”
They are also lack of books. “One mother was complaining lately because we have one book left. But what else could we do? That’s all we have.”
Dante A. Verdera, 49 , who has been teaching for 22 years, said their school the Godofredo M. Tan Memorial School in Quezon Province is in the process of building makeshift classrooms to accommodate their students.
“Our students number around 1,500. As of May 21, there are already 1,000 students who have enrolled, And yet some old students have not yet enrolled. More students will enroll a few days before classes open on June 4,” Verdera said. They are also suffering the same burden such as shortages in classrooms, teachers, books and chairs. He lamented that he handles at least 60 students per class. The standard ratio is one teacher per 35 students.
Insufficient budget
Ramos criticized the under spending of the government fund for the education sector. She said the efforts of the government to reform and improve the education system in the Philippines are being defeated for as long as the shortages are not addressed. “The government has spent money in many projects. I just can’t understand why they can’t hire more teachers and give the salary grade 15 that the teachers have long been calling for,” Ramos said.

(Photo by Anne Marxze D. Umil / Bulatlat.com)
For as long as the shortages are not addressed, Ramos said, students will always suffer from lack of chairs, textbooks and classrooms. “If the government only allocates a bigger budget for education, then these shortages can be addressed. It’s the students who sacrifice with the lack of facilities. The bottom line here is the budget.”
The education sector has the highest priority in the national budget, the government claims. However, the approved 2012 national budget revealed that debt servicing got the highest allocation of P738.6 billion ($17 billion) while defense got P113.1 billion ($2.5 billion). Social services got P575.8 billion ($13 billion) or 31.7 percent of the entire General Appropriations Act (GAA), mainly for implementing dole-out programs such as the Conditional Cash Transfer program, the flagship program of Benigno “Noynoy” S. Aquino III administration.
In news reports, the budget for education has also increased to P238.8 billion ($5.5 billion), which, according to Aquino, is “the biggest budget of all departments.” However, Kabataan Party-list rep. Raymond Palatino said, despite government declarations that it is giving the education sector the highest priority in its budget, the entire allocation for education is stilled pegged at levels insufficient to ensure that every child is able to enjoy his or her right to education. “While Unesco recommends that 6 percent of the GDP should be set aside for education, DepEd only received 2.1 percent of the GDP for the current year.”
Change in curriculum, not the answer to quality education
The DepEd figures on shortages are glaring; progressive youth group Anakbayan expressed dismay over the same problems that would greet them this coming school opening.
“The Department of Education has said it themselves that we still lack classrooms and teachers. With the upcoming implementation of the K to 12 program, the same burden will greet parents, teachers, and students during the opening of classes,” Orendain said.
She also added that K to 12 is not the answer to address the degrading quality of education in the country. “It will only burden our teachers, our parents and the students.”
Teachers do also agree that the change in the curriculum is not an assurance of quality education. Castro said the curriculum changes almost every time we have a new president, but the quality of education continues to deteriorate.
Ramos cited the curriculums implemented before such as the Secondary Education Development, the Basic Education Curriculum, which later on became the Revised Basic Education Curriculum and now the K to 12 curriculum.
Kabataan Party-list Rep. Raymond Palatino reminded education officials “not to get too carried away and too preoccupied with the grandiose and ambitious plans of the program while relegating to the sidelines the most basic and essential concerns that continue to beset our teachers, students and other concerned sectors, problems that have actually contributed to the sorry state of education we have today.”
Palatino also added that the K to 12 program envisions to produce graduates with ’21st century skills’ however, the country is far from having 21st century facilities essential in achieving suitable learning conditions. “The Aquino government has yet to present a convincing program to remedy the existing shortages in the education sector. How can basic education qualitatively function amid these dire shortages? Students cannot properly learn if, in the first place, there are no sufficient classrooms to study in, chairs to sit on, teachers to learn from, and textbooks to read.” (http://bulatlat.com)

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

K to 12 Program ng Gobyerno ng Pilipinas


MGA TANONG AT SAGOT HINGGIL SA Kto12 PROGRAM NG GOBYERNO NG PILIPINAS




MGA TANONG AT SAGOT HINGGIL SA Kto12 PROGRAM NG GOBYERNO NG PILIPINAS
(Paunawa: Simpleng lenggwahe ang ginamit sa artikulong ito upang madaling maintindihan ng mayorya.)

For the full English version please visit http://www.scribd.com/david_juan_1/d/70033985-San-Juan-David-Michael-Full-Paper-Kto12

TANONG: ANO ANG KTO12 PROG­­­RAM?­­­­
SAGOT: Ang Kto12 Program ng gobyerno ng Pilipinas ay tumutukoy sa pagkakaroon ng mandatory o required na kindergarten at karagdagang 2 taon sa dating 10-year Basic Education Cycle. Kung noon, pagkatapos ng anim na taon sa elementarya at apat na taon sa hayskul (kabuuang 10 taon) ay maaari nang makapagkolehiyo ang mga estudyante. Sa ilalim ng Kto12, bago makapagkolehiyo, kailangan pa nilang dumaan sa karagdagang 2 taon pagkatapos ng apat na taong hayskul. Sa bagong sistema, tinatawag na senior high school o junior college ang karagdagang 2 taon. Ang apat na taon ng hayskul sa lumang sistema ay tinatawag naming junior high school. Sa kabuuan, Grade 1-12 ang opisyal na tawag sa 12 taon ng Basic Education sa ilalim ng Kto12.

TANONG: AYON SA GOBYERNO, BAKIT DAW KAILANGANG MAGDAGDAG NG 2 TAON SA BASIC EDUCATION?
SAGOT: Mababa raw ang kalidad ng edukasyon sa Pilipinas at sa pamamagitan daw ng Kto12 ay mapatataas ang kalidad ng edukasyon sa bansa.

National Achievement Test Results

Sa buong Southeast Asia raw, ang Pilipinas na lang ang may 10-year Basic Education Cycle (ang ibang bansa ay may 11-12 taon sa Basic Education Cycle). Sa buong mundo, ang Pilipinas daw ang isa sa 3 bansa na may 10-year Basic Education Cycle. Sa lumang sistema raw, pagkagraduate ng hayskul ay di pa rin handa para magtrabaho ang mga estudyante (masyado pang bata para makapagnegosyo at iba pa). Hindi rin daw handang magkolehiyo ang maraming graduate ng hayskul sa lumang sistema.

Dahil daw sa lumang 10-year Basic Education Cycle ay hindi kinikilala o nirerecognize ng ibang bansa ang mga propesyunal na grumaduate sa Pilipinas. Sa Amerika, kailangan daw ang 12 taon ng Basic Education para sa mga engineer. Sa Europa naman, kailangan daw ng 12 taon ng Basic Education para sa mga gustong mag-aral sa mga unibersidad doon at para sa mga gustong magtrabaho bilang propesyunal doon.

TANONG: KAILAN MAGSISIMULA ANG KTO12 PROGRAM?
SAGOT: Nagsimula noong School Year 2011-2012 ang pagkakaroon ng kindergarten sa mga pampublikong paaralan. Ngayong School Year 2012-2013 ay sisimulan na ang implementasyon ng Kto12 curriculum sa Grade 1 (elementarya) at Grade 7 (unang taon sa junior high school). Unti-unting ipapatupad ang Kto12 curriculum hanggang sa makagraduate ang unang batch ng senior high school sa School Year 2017-2018.  Batay sa plano ng gobyerno, sa School Year 2018-2019 pa lang makapagsisimulang kumuha ng bachelor’s degree sa kolehiyo/unibersidad ang unang batch ng senior high school na dumaan sa Kto12.

TANONG: MAAYOS BA ANG PREPARASYON NG GOBYERNO BAGO IPATUPAD ANG KTO12?
SAGOT: Maraming naging problema nang agad na ipinatupad ang mandatory kindergarten: kulang ng silid-aralan, kulang ng guro at mababa lang din ang sweldo ng mga guro sa kindergarten. Ngayong School Year 2012-2013, ayon sa ACT Teachers Partylist,  kulang ng 132,483 guro, 97,685 silid-aralan at 153,709 pasilidad sa tubig at sanitasyon ang mga pampublikong paaralang elementarya at hayskul sa Pilipinas. Mismong ang Department of Education ay umaamin na may kulang pa ring guro at pasilidad ang mga pampublikong paaralan dahil sa kakulangan ng pondo.

Samantala, may problema rin ang Kto12 curriculum na ipapatupad ngayong School Year 2012-2013. Una, minadali ang paggawa sa curriculum na ito (ngayong summer lang ng 2012 ito ginawa). Mas malala ang problema sa hayskul dahil noong 2010 ay may inilabas nang curriculum ang DepEd. Kumbaga, mainit-init pa ang 2010 curriculum ay may bago na naman ngayon kaya laganap ang pagkalito ng mga guro at maging ng mga administrador. Sa katunayan, di pa tapos ang implementasyon ng 2010 curriculum sa hayskul (ang curriculum na ito’y tinatawag na 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum o 2010 SEC). Pinupuna rin ng ibang guro ang pag-adopt ng ilang bahagi ng Kto12 curriculum sa mga tema ng isang institusyong pang-edukasyon sa Amerika gaya ng nangyari sa draft ng curriculum para sa Araling Panlipunan.

Sa kasalukuyan (as of May 28, 2012), tumatanggap pa rin ng suhestyon atbp. ang Bureau of Secondary Education ng DepEd hinggil sa curriculum ng 3rd Year sa hayskul sa ilalim ng 2010 SEC na ayon sa website nila ay “DRAFT” pa lang. Tumatanggap pa rin sila ng suhestyon hinggil sa Kto12 curriculum para sa Grade 7-12 (samakatwid, “draft” lang din ang Kto12 curriculum). Sa kabuuan, ang prosesong sinunod sa pagbubuo ng Kto12 curriculum ay top-down: mga eksperto ang namamahala sa pagbuo ng curriculum at halos walang papel ang mga simpleng gurong aktwal na nasa field.

Problematiko rin ang kasabay na pagpapatupad ng Kto12 at ng Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) ng DepEd: hati ang oras at resources ng ahensya para sa training ng mga guro.

TANONG: MAGKANO ANG MAGAGASTOS SA IMPLEMENTASYON NG KTO12 AT SAAN KUKUHA NG PERA ANG GOBYERNO PARA RITO?
SAGOT: Tinatayang 150 bilyong piso ang magagastos para sa karagdagang guro, libro at klasrum pa lamang. Hanggang ngayon, di pa rin nililinaw ng gobyerno kung saan kukunin ang ganitong kalaking pera. Suportado (at talagang matagal nang itinutulak) ng World Bank ang Kto12 Program kaya may posibilidad na sa karagdagang utang manggaling ang pera para sa Kto12. Kamakailan, lumabas din ang balita na inirerekomenda ng World Bank sa gobyerno ng Pilipinas na magtaas at magdagdag ng bagong buwis. Kung hindi utang, karagdagang buwis ang pagmumulan ng pondo para sa Kto12 dahil wala namang ibang source ang Pilipinas.

TANONG: MAY PLANO NA BA ANG GOBYERNO PARA SA MGA KOLEHIYO/UNIBERSIDAD NA POSIBLENG MAWALAN NG ESTUDYANTE MULA SCHOOL YEAR 2016-2017 HANGGANG 2017-2018 DAHIL SA KTO12?
SAGOT: Wala pang malinaw na plano ang gobyerno hinggil dito. Gayunman, ayon sa mga forum/talakayan, gagamitin ang pasilidad ng mga kolehiyo/unibersidad na ito para sa implementasyon ng senior high school. Ang mga guro ng mga institusyong ito ay pwede ring pagturuin sa senior high school.

TANONG: MAAARI BANG MAGTURO SA JUNIOR AT/O SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL ANG MGA PROPESOR/INSTRUKTOR NA WALANG LET O HINDI KUMUHA/HINDI PASADO NG LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS?
SAGOT: Wala pang malinaw na sagot ang gobyerno hinggil dito. May mga nagsasabing papayagan silang magturo basta may sapat nang bilang ng taon ng pagtuturo noon sa kolehiyo/unibersidad.

TANONG: ANO ANG EPEKTO NG KTO12 SA KOLEHIYO/UNIBERSIDAD, PARTIKULAR SA MGA KURSO/COURSES?
SAGOT: Hanggang ngayon, wala pang malinaw na detalye hinggil dito. May nagsasabing iikli ang bilang ng taon ng kolehiyo/unibersidad dahil ang ibang General Education subjects (gaya ng Filipino, English at History) ay isasama/ililipat na sa senior high school. May nagsasabing ganoon pa rin ang bilang ng taon ng kolehiyo/unibersidad pero mababawasan ng ilang General Education subjects ang kukunin ng mga estudyante roon.

TANONG: DAPAT BANG IHINTO ANG IMPLEMENTASYON NG KTO12?
SAGOT: Batay sa mga nabanggit na problema at kawalan ng malinaw at komprehensibong plano ng gobyerno hinggil sa implementasyon ng Kto12, dapat pansamantala munang itigil ang implementasyon nito para hindi masayang ang pera at pagod ng DepEd at ng mga guro at iba pang mga mamamayang kasangkot sa implementasyon nito. Dapat unahin ng gobyerno ang mga kakulangan sa 10-year Basic Education Cycle bago magdagdag ng taon dahil kung basta na lamang magdaragdag ng taon nang hindi pa naaayos ang 10-year Basic Education Cycle, tiyak na lalo lamang gugulo ang sistema at baka nga lalo pang bumaba ang kalidad ng edukasyon sa bansa.

Kung tutuusin, wala ring sapat na pera ang gobyerno para sa Kto12 sa panahong ito. Ni hindi nga mailaan ng gobyerno sa edukasyon ang 6% man lamang ng Gross Domestic Product ng bansa para makasunod sa standard ng United Nations. Katunayan, mula noong administrasyong Macapagal-Arroyo hanggang sa panahon ng ikalawang administrasyong Aquino, pagbabayad ng utang at hindi edukasyon ang prayoridad ng gobyerno sa National Budget (kahit na nga labag ito sa Konstitusyon).

Gayundin, dapat bigyang-diin na ang ibang dahilan sa pagpapatupad ng Kto12 (halimbawa’y ang pagpapattern ng ating education system para sa pangangailangan ng Amerika at Europa) ay mali per se. Bakit dapat magproduce ng mga propesyunal ang Pilipinas para sa pangangailangan ng Amerika at Europa lamang? Hindi ba dapat na ang mga propesyunal na graduate sa Pilipinas ay suitable ang skills sa bansa nila mismo para makatulong sila sa pag-unlad nito? Para saan nga ba o para kanino ang edukasyon? Iyon ang unang dapat sagutin at mali ang sagot ng Kto12 sa tanong na iyon. Kaya, sabi nga ng sikat na Bible study guides, “TEKA MUNA!” Bago mag-Kto12 baka mas magandang mag-usap-usap muna tayo (gobyerno, mga guro, mga magulang, mga estudyante at mga mamamayan).

-          Institute of Nationalist Education and Republican Democracy (INERD)  Mayo 28, 2012

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

Rote Learning is Part of Learning

Figure taken from http://www.skill-guru.com/sat/devil%E2%80%99s-advocate-rote-learning-in-sat-test-is-good/


      "The visitors and high officials, after being handsomely entertained, would then write in their _Travels_ or _Memoirs_: "The Royal and Pontifical University of Santo Tomas of Manila, in charge of the enlightened Dominican Order, possesses a magnificent physical laboratory for the instruction of youth. Some two hundred and fifty students annually study this subject, but whether from apathy, indolence, the limited capacity of the Indian, or some other ethnological or incomprehensible reason, up to now there has not developed a Lavoisier, a Secchi, or a Tyndall, not even in miniature, in the Malay-Filipino race."
 - Jose Rizal, El Filibusterismo, "The Class in Physics", Chapter XIII, English Translation - Gutenberg


This was a lesson from history. In "The Class in Physics", Jose Rizal made it clear that an assessment of education involves looking at the goals. There are two goals: knowledge construction and knowledge acquisition. There is content and there are skills.

In El Filibusterismo, Jose Rizal engages the reader into a discussion about mirrors. The way Padre Millon deals with the subject matter (minus the derogatory attitude towards the students) actually examines the topic in a critical manner. It definitely goes beyond mere knowledge acquisition as the mirror's definition is applied to other objects made of neither metal nor glass.

""The name of mirror is applied to all polished surfaces intended to produce by the reflection of light the images of the objects placed before said surfaces. From the substances that form these surfaces, they are divided into metallic mirrors and glass mirrors--"

"Stop, stop, stop!" interrupted the professor. "Heavens, what a rattle! We are at the point where the mirrors are divided into metallic and glass, eh? Now if I should present to you a block of wood, a piece of kamagon for instance, well polished and varnished, or a slab of black marble well burnished, or a square of jet, which would reflect the images of objects placed before them, how would you classify those mirrors?""


Skimming and absorbing only the sound bites may lead people to the conclusion that teaching students by simply handing out information and expecting them to retrieve or recall is bad education. Jose Rizal, after all, describes:

"This was the professor who that morning called the roll and directed many of the students to recite the lesson from memory, word for word. The phonographs got into operation, some well, some ill, some stammering, and received their grades. He who recited without an error earned a good mark and he who made more than three mistakes a bad mark."


Jose Rizal also uses the "phonograph" to describe the students highlighting the impression that they are nothing but sound-reproducing machines. However, the main point does not end here. Both at the beginning and near the end of this chapter, Jose Rizal painted how education was being used to further oppressed the people. Rote learning is not equivalent to bad education. To drop rote learning is a big mistake as it ignores that knowledge requires acquisition of content. Chess players need to learn how each piece moves, and how each piece takes out another piece. Biochemistry requires knowledge of the amino acids, and Organic Chemistry requires memorization of so many reactions. Even in a graduate course that I took on Inorganic Chemistry, we were advised to use index cards, on which we write the reactants on one side and the products on the other side, to help us remember reactions of elements across the periodic table.

Although "The Class in Physics" may be a good reading, I do hope that we are no longer facing the same problem of using education to oppress and degrade people. I think this was the main issue during that time. Our issue now is to address problems in basic education that hopefully have nothing to do with intentionally keeping people out of education. In this light, it is helpful to step back amidst current waves or fads. It would be useful to keep our eyes on a bigger picture since it is possible that we may in fact drop something very important by focusing too much. A country, of course, will not prosper if everyone is simply a phonograph. Likewise, a nation will not move forward if everyone can be critical but not knowing anything.  Here are two articles (the second one is a page taken from an article in "Theory into Practice", that relates the story about three learners; Amy, Becky and Carla) that I think are worth our attention. No one argues against how important meaningful learning is, how important critical thinking is. But in such pursuit, we must not lose sight of the importance of how we first acquire and retain knowledge. Rote learning is part of learning. If we are not careful, we may end up memorizing sound bites regarding education and embrace something we do not fully understand.

(copied with permission)

As a youth, I remember feeling cheated out of rich content in my education when I listened to my mother in times of sorrow or tenderness, lovingly recite entire poems and passages from books she studied in high school.

We all know that practice makes perfect, but for some reason perfection is not one of the goals of learning in most schools. In today's classrooms, students practice plenty, but are not required to retain knowledge perfectly.


The M Word


Somewhere along the way, rote learning got a bad rap. Memorization (there, I said the M word) became anathema to learning. How this came to be, I am uncertain, but what I am certain is that this shift away from memorization has undermined the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process altering whole generations. Perhaps the misplaced angst against memorization has come from the notion that memorization is reserved for teachers as a teaching methodology.

The true nature of memorization, however, is not for the teachers at all, really. It is for the students. And it is the responsibility of teachers to teach students how to use it to help them in their educational career.

The total emphasis on critical thinking has it all wrong: Before students can think critically, they need to have something to think about in their brains. It is true that knowledge without comprehension is of little use, but comprehension requires knowledge and it takes time and effort to acquire.
Bloom's Taxonomy maintains that the highest order of thinking occurs at the evaluating and creating levels which infer that the thinkers must have knowledge, facts, data, or information in their brains to combine into something new, or with which to judge relative importance or value. Therefore, effective knowledge acquisition has to come first.

The Cognitive 411


Students deserve to know how to learn and teachers do them a disservice when they do not teach them useful learning skills. Here are some underlying concepts that need to be accepted before we can continue:

  • The brain is a learning tool. This might seem obvious, but the brain is not a passive sponge. It requires active effort to retain information in short-term memory and even more effort to get it into long-term memory.
  • Learners need to know that the longer an idea can be kept in short-term memory, the more chance it can be pushed into long-term memory. This is where practice makes perfect makes sense.
  • The body is another learning tool -- another often-ignored concept. The body is connected to the brain and if you engage the body, you are engaging the brain too.
  • Learners feel an addictive sense of accomplishment when something has been memorized completely.

Memory Games


With these concepts in mind, I would like to discuss some of the memorization learning methods that make it effective and enjoyable:

Learning Aloud


Just as we use our mouths to repeat a phone number over and over to retain it in short term memory, other things can be learned in the same way. One key point here to remember is that the cycle of repetition must be short and quick and no less than three times.

Another point is that if students cannot pronounce a word, there is no way they can remember it. When reviewing flash cards orally, for example, students need to do it quickly, pausing only a second or two for recall.

If it doesn't come, then they need to look at the answer and repeat it aloud, then go on. If done quickly, by the third or fourth iteration, most students can have 100 percent accuracy. The danger is when a student gets stuck on one card for too long, all of the other information in short term memory is lost, making the study ineffective.

One way to help students learn how to do this is to do the flash cards with them, modeling the speed and what happens if the student can't remember: let them look at the answer, but making sure that that student gets a chance to respond correctly again. If the students are in a line (or even better, several lines), the first student answers a card, and then goes back to the end of the line while the rest of the students in the line give their responses to the cards one by one.

Using Rhythm and Breath


Learning text is done at similar speeds, but since the order of learning the words is important there are some effective ways to chain them together. Learn the passage in breath groups, or what can be comfortably stated in one breath. Students using their mouths, because it is part of the body and a learning tool, repeat the breath group until it is firmly in short-term memory, then go on to the next breath group and do the same. When that is done, put both groups together and repeat them.

This is best taught to students using choral repetition. The key here is to be enthusiastic and energetic, praising the students as they practice. Printing the first letter of each word in the breath group can help students remember the words as they learn them.

Jigsaw Strategies


A creative teacher can have groups of students learn different parts of the passage and then switch parts, or stand up as they say their passage, or even move to a different part of the room with each phrase. Since the body is connected to the brain, it is effective to have students do a hand signal or body movement to symbolize the content of the breath group as they say it.

Sometimes it is helpful to start at the end and add phrases in reverse order known as reverse chaining. I have seen seventh graders use this method to learn the complex logical operations and high school students learning chemistry through a chemical reactions dance.

As a Spanish teacher, I found it effective to have the students perform the action of the words they were trying to learn as they told a story, know as Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS). It was exciting to see students enjoying themselves while acting out and stating from memory the words to Caperucita Roja ("Little Red Riding Hood").

Memorization is not a bad thing. Students have to memorize the alphabet, sight words, vocabulary, times tables, and many other things and have fun doing it.

There's countless ways to help students learn how to memorize quickly, efficiently, and enjoyably. You can use music, song, dance, rhythms, patterns, competitions, and games. Once they know how to learn, or memorize, then students can acquire knowledge about anything they want to learn, which is in direction opposition to what critics say about rote memorization.

What are your thoughts on this post? Please share your own stories about learning through memorization.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Rote versus Meaningful Learning

Richard E. Mayer
Page 227 of 226-232
Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1477407

Monday, May 28, 2012

A Lesson from History

THE CLASS IN PHYSICS (Chapter XIII, El Filibusterismo)
The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Reign of Greed, by Jose Rizal
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10676/10676-8.txt


The classroom was a spacious rectangular hall with large grated
windows that admitted an abundance of light and air. Along the two
sides extended three wide tiers of stone covered with wood, filled
with students arranged in alphabetical order. At the end opposite the
entrance, under a print of St. Thomas Aquinas, rose the professor's
chair on an elevated platform with a little stairway on each side. With
the exception of a beautiful blackboard in a narra frame, scarcely
ever used, since there was still written on it the _viva_ that had
appeared on the opening day, no furniture, either useful or useless,
was to be seen. The walls, painted white and covered with glazed tiles
to prevent scratches, were entirely bare, having neither a drawing
nor a picture, nor even an outline of any physical apparatus. The
students had no need of any, no one missed the practical instruction
in an extremely experimental science; for years and years it has been
so taught and the country has not been upset, but continues just as
ever. Now and then some little instrument descended from heaven and
was exhibited to the class from a distance, like the monstrance to
the prostrate worshipers--look, but touch not! From time to time,
when some complacent professor appeared, one day in the year was
set aside for visiting the mysterious laboratory and gazing from
without at the puzzling apparatus arranged in glass cases. No one
could complain, for on that day there were to be seen quantities of
brass and glassware, tubes, disks, wheels, bells, and the like--the
exhibition did not get beyond that, and the country was not upset.

Besides, the students were convinced that those instruments had not
been purchased for them--the friars would be fools! The laboratory
was intended to be shown to the visitors and the high officials who
came from the Peninsula, so that upon seeing it they would nod their
heads with satisfaction, while their guide would smile, as if to say,
"Eh, you thought you were going to find some backward monks! Well,
we're right up with the times--we have a laboratory!"

The visitors and high officials, after being handsomely entertained,
would then write in their _Travels_ or _Memoirs_: "The Royal
and Pontifical University of Santo Tomas of Manila, in charge of
the enlightened Dominican Order, possesses a magnificent physical
laboratory for the instruction of youth. Some two hundred and fifty
students annually study this subject, but whether from apathy,
indolence, the limited capacity of the Indian, or some other
ethnological or incomprehensible reason, up to now there has not
developed a Lavoisier, a Secchi, or a Tyndall, not even in miniature,
in the Malay-Filipino race."

Yet, to be exact, we will say that in this laboratory are held the
classes of thirty or forty _advanced_ students, under the direction of
an instructor who performs his duties well enough, but as the greater
part of these students come from the Ateneo of the Jesuits, where
science is taught practically in the laboratory itself, its utility
does not come to be so great as it would be if it could be utilized by
the two hundred and fifty who pay their matriculation fees, buy their
books, memorize them, and waste a year to know nothing afterwards. As
a result, with the exception of some rare usher or janitor who has
had charge of the museum for years, no one has ever been known to
get any advantage from the lessons memorized with so great effort.

But let us return to the class. The professor was a young Dominican,
who had filled several chairs in San Juan de Letran with zeal and
good repute. He had the reputation of being a great logician as well
as a profound philosopher, and was one of the most promising in his
clique. His elders treated him with consideration, while the younger
men envied him, for there were also cliques among them. This was the
third year of his professorship and, although the first in which he
had taught physics and chemistry, he already passed for a sage, not
only with the complaisant students but also among the other nomadic
professors. Padre Millon did not belong to the common crowd who each
year change their subject in order to acquire scientific knowledge,
students among other students, with the difference only that they
follow a single course, that they quiz instead of being quizzed,
that they have a better knowledge of Castilian, and that they are not
examined at the completion of the course. Padre Millon went deeply
into science, knew the physics of Aristotle and Padre Amat, read
carefully his "Ramos," and sometimes glanced at "Ganot." With all that,
he would often shake his head with an air of doubt, as he smiled and
murmured: "_transeat_." In regard to chemistry, no common knowledge
was attributed to him after he had taken as a premise the statement of
St. Thomas that water is a mixture and proved plainly that the Angelic
Doctor had long forestalled Berzelius, Gay-Lussac, Bunsen, and other
more or less presumptuous materialists. Moreover, in spite of having
been an instructor in geography, he still entertained certain doubts as
to the rotundity of the earth and smiled maliciously when its rotation
and revolution around the sun were mentioned, as he recited the verses


    "El mentir de las estrellas
    Es un cómodo mentir." [29]


He also smiled maliciously in the presence of certain physical
theories and considered visionary, if not actually insane, the
Jesuit Secchi, to whom he imputed the making of triangulations on
the host as a result of his astronomical mania, for which reason it
was said that he had been forbidden to celebrate mass. Many persons
also noticed in him some aversion to the sciences that he taught,
but these vagaries were trifles, scholarly and religious prejudices
that were easily explained, not only by the fact that the physical
sciences were eminently practical, of pure observation and deduction,
while his forte was philosophy, purely speculative, of abstraction
and induction, but also because, like any good Dominican, jealous
of the fame of his order, he could hardly feel any affection for a
science in which none of his brethren had excelled--he was the first
who did not accept the chemistry of St. Thomas Aquinas--and in which
so much renown had been acquired by hostile, or rather, let us say,
rival orders.

This was the professor who that morning called the roll and directed
many of the students to recite the lesson from memory, word for
word. The phonographs got into operation, some well, some ill, some
stammering, and received their grades. He who recited without an error
earned a good mark and he who made more than three mistakes a bad mark.

A fat boy with a sleepy face and hair as stiff and hard as the bristles
of a brush yawned until he seemed to be about to dislocate his jaws,
and stretched himself with his arms extended as though he were in
his bed. The professor saw this and wished to startle him.

"Eh, there, sleepy-head! What's this? Lazy, too, so it's sure you
[30] don't know the lesson, ha?"

Padre Millon not only used the depreciative _tu_ with the students,
like a good friar, but he also addressed them in the slang of the
markets, a practise that he had acquired from the professor of
canonical law: whether that reverend gentleman wished to humble the
students or the sacred decrees of the councils is a question not yet
settled, in spite of the great attention that has been given to it.

This question, instead of offending the class, amused them, and many
laughed--it was a daily occurrence. But the sleeper did not laugh;
he arose with a bound, rubbed his eyes, and, as though a steam-engine
were turning the phonograph, began to recite.

"The name of mirror is applied to all polished surfaces intended to
produce by the reflection of light the images of the objects placed
before said surfaces. From the substances that form these surfaces,
they are divided into metallic mirrors and glass mirrors--"

"Stop, stop, stop!" interrupted the professor. "Heavens, what a
rattle! We are at the point where the mirrors are divided into
metallic and glass, eh? Now if I should present to you a block of
wood, a piece of kamagon for instance, well polished and varnished,
or a slab of black marble well burnished, or a square of jet, which
would reflect the images of objects placed before them, how would
you classify those mirrors?"

Whether he did not know what to answer or did not understand
the question, the student tried to get out of the difficulty by
demonstrating that he knew the lesson, so he rushed on like a torrent.

"The first are composed of brass or an alloy of different metals and
the second of a sheet of glass, with its two sides well polished,
one of which has an amalgam of tin adhering to it."

"Tut, tut, tut! That's not it! I say to you '_Dominus vobiscum_,'
and you answer me with '_Requiescat in pace!_' "

The worthy professor then repeated the question in the vernacular of
the markets, interspersed with _cosas_ and _abás_ at every moment.

The poor youth did not know how to get out of the quandary: he doubted
whether to include the kamagon with the metals, or the marble with
glasses, and leave the jet as a neutral substance, until Juanito
Pelaez maliciously prompted him:

"The mirror of kamagon among the wooden mirrors."

The incautious youth repeated this aloud and half the class was
convulsed with laughter.

"A good sample of wood you are yourself!" exclaimed the professor,
laughing in spite of himself. "Let's see from what you would define a
mirror--from a surface _per se, in quantum est superficies_, or from a
substance that forms the surface, or from the substance upon which the
surface rests, the raw material, modified by the attribute 'surface,'
since it is clear that, surface being an accidental property of bodies,
it cannot exist without substance. Let's see now--what do you say?"

"I? Nothing!" the wretched boy was about to reply, for he did not
understand what it was all about, confused as he was by so many
surfaces and so many accidents that smote cruelly on his ears, but
a sense of shame restrained him. Filled with anguish and breaking
into a cold perspiration, he began to repeat between his teeth:
"The name of mirror is applied to all polished surfaces--"

"_Ergo, per te_, the mirror is the surface," angled the
professor. "Well, then, clear up this difficulty. If the surface is the
mirror, it must be of no consequence to the 'essence' of the mirror
what may be found behind this surface, since what is behind it does
not affect the 'essence' that is before it, _id est_, the surface,
_quae super faciem est, quia vocatur superficies, facies ea quae
supra videtur_. Do you admit that or do you not admit it?"

The poor youth's hair stood up straighter than ever, as though acted
upon by some magnetic force.

"Do you admit it or do you not admit it?"

"Anything! Whatever you wish, Padre," was his thought, but he did
not dare to express it from fear of ridicule. That was a dilemma
indeed, and he had never been in a worse one. He had a vague idea
that the most innocent thing could not be admitted to the friars
but that they, or rather their estates and curacies, would get out
of it all the results and advantages imaginable. So his good angel
prompted him to deny everything with all the energy of his soul and
refractoriness of his hair, and he was about to shout a proud _nego_,
for the reason that he who denies everything does not compromise
himself in anything, as a certain lawyer had once told him; but the
evil habit of disregarding the dictates of one's own conscience,
of having little faith in legal folk, and of seeking aid from others
where one is sufficient unto himself, was his undoing. His companions,
especially Juanito Pelaez, were making signs to him to admit it,
so he let himself be carried away by his evil destiny and exclaimed,
"_Concedo_, Padre," in a voice as faltering as though he were saying,
"_In manus tuas commendo spiritum meum._"

"_Concedo antecedentum_," echoed the professor, smiling
maliciously. "_Ergo_, I can scratch the mercury off a looking-glass,
put in its place a piece of _bibinka_, and we shall still have a
mirror, eh? Now what shall we have?"

The youth gazed at his prompters, but seeing them surprised and
speechless, contracted his features into an expression of bitterest
reproach. "_Deus meus, Deus meus, quare dereliquiste me,_" said his
troubled eyes, while his lips muttered "_Linintikan!_" Vainly he
coughed, fumbled at his shirt-bosom, stood first on one foot and then
on the other, but found no answer.

"Come now, what have we?" urged the professor, enjoying the effect
of his reasoning.

"_Bibinka!_" whispered Juanito Pelaez. "_Bibinka!_"

"Shut up, you fool!" cried the desperate youth, hoping to get out of
the difficulty by turning it into a complaint.

"Let's see, Juanito, if you can answer the question for me," the
professor then said to Pelaez, who was one of his pets.

The latter rose slowly, not without first giving Penitente, who
followed him on the roll, a nudge that meant, "Don't forget to
prompt me."

"_Nego consequentiam_, Padre," he replied resolutely.

"Aha, then _probo consequentiam! Per te_, the polished surface
constitutes the 'essence' of the mirror--"

_"Nego suppositum!"_ interrupted Juanito, as he felt Placido pulling
at his coat.

"How? _Per te_--"

"_Nego!_"

"_Ergo,_ you believe that what is behind affects what is in front?"

_"Nego!"_ the student cried with still more ardor, feeling another
jerk at his coat.

Juanito, or rather Placido, who was prompting him, was unconsciously
adopting Chinese tactics: not to admit the most inoffensive foreigner
in order not to be invaded.

"Then where are we?" asked the professor, somewhat disconcerted,
and looking uneasily at the refractory student. "Does the substance
behind affect, or does it not affect, the surface?"

To this precise and categorical question, a kind of ultimatum, Juanito
did not know what to reply and his coat offered no suggestions. In vain
he made signs to Placido, but Placido himself was in doubt. Juanito
then took advantage of a moment in which the professor was staring
at a student who was cautiously and secretly taking off the shoes
that hurt his feet, to step heavily on Placido's toes and whisper,
"Tell me, hurry up, tell me!"

"I distinguish--Get out! What an ass you are!" yelled Placido
unreservedly, as he stared with angry eyes and rubbed his hand over
his patent-leather shoe.

The professor heard the cry, stared at the pair, and guessed what
had happened.

"Listen, you meddler," he addressed Placido, "I wasn't questioning
you, but since you think you can save others, let's see if you can
save yourself, _salva te ipsum,_ and decide this question."

Juanito sat down in content, and as a mark of gratitude stuck out
his tongue at his prompter, who had arisen blushing with shame and
muttering incoherent excuses.

For a moment Padre Millon regarded him as one gloating over a favorite
dish. What a good thing it would be to humiliate and hold up to
ridicule that dudish boy, always smartly dressed, with head erect
and serene look! It would be a deed of charity, so the charitable
professor applied himself to it with all his heart, slowly repeating
the question.

"The book says that the metallic mirrors are made of brass and an
alloy of different metals--is that true or is it not true?"

"So the book says, Padre."

"_Liber dixit, ergo ita est_. Don't pretend that you know more than the
book does. It then adds that the glass mirrors are made of a sheet of
glass whose two surfaces are well polished, one of them having applied
to it an amalgam of tin, _nota bene_, an amalgam of tin! Is that true?"

"If the book says so, Padre."

"Is tin a metal?"

"It seems so, Padre. The book says so."

"It is, it is, and the word amalgam means that it is compounded with
mercury, which is also a metal. _Ergo_, a glass mirror is a metallic
mirror; _ergo_, the terms of the distinction are confused; _ergo_,
the classification is imperfect--how do you explain that, meddler?"

He emphasized the _ergos_ and the familiar "you's" with indescribable
relish, at the same time winking, as though to say, "You're done for."

"It means that, it means that--" stammered Placido.

"It means that you haven't learned the lesson, you petty meddler,
you don't understand it yourself, and yet you prompt your neighbor!"

The class took no offense, but on the contrary many thought the
epithet funny and laughed. Placido bit his lips.

"What's your name?" the professor asked him.

"Placido," was the curt reply.

"Aha! Placido Penitente, although you look more like Placido the
Prompter--or the Prompted. But, _Penitent_, I'm going to impose some
_penance_ on you for your promptings."

Pleased with his play on words, he ordered the youth to recite the
lesson, and the latter, in the state of mind to which he was reduced,
made more than three mistakes. Shaking his head up and down, the
professor slowly opened the register and slowly scanned it while he
called off the names in a low voice.

"Palencia--Palomo--Panganiban--Pedraza--Pelado--Pelaez--Penitents,
aha! Placido Penitente, fifteen unexcused absences--"

Placido started up. "Fifteen absences, Padre?"

"Fifteen unexcused absences," continued the professor, "so that you
only lack one to be dropped from the roll."

"Fifteen absences, fifteen absences," repeated Placido in
amazement. "I've never been absent more than four times, and with
today, perhaps five."

"Jesso, jesso, monseer," [31] replied the professor, examining the
youth over his gold eye-glasses. "You confess that you have missed
five times, and God knows if you may have missed oftener. _Atqui_,
as I rarely call the roll, every time I catch any one I put five
marks against him; _ergo_, how many are five times five? Have you
forgotten the multiplication table? Five times five?"

"Twenty-five."

"Correct, correct! Thus you've still got away with ten, because I have
caught you only three times. Huh, if I had caught you every time--Now,
how many are three times five?"

"Fifteen."

"Fifteen, right you are!" concluded the professor, closing the
register. "If you miss once more--out of doors with you, get out! Ah,
now a mark for the failure in the daily lesson."

He again opened the register, sought out the name, and entered the
mark. "Come, only one mark," he said, "since you hadn't any before."

"But, Padre," exclaimed Placido, restraining himself, "if your
Reverence puts a mark against me for failing in the lesson, your
Reverence owes it to me to erase the one for absence that you have
put against me for today."

His Reverence made no answer. First he slowly entered the mark,
then contemplated it with his head on one side,--the mark must be
artistic,--closed the register, and asked with great sarcasm, "_Abá_,
and why so, sir?"

"Because I can't conceive, Padre, how one can be absent from the
class and at the same time recite the lesson in it. Your Reverence
is saying that to be is not to be."

"_Nakú_, a metaphysician, but a rather premature one! So you can't
conceive of it, eh? _Sed patet experientia_ and _contra experientiam
negantem, fusilibus est arguendum_, do you understand? And can't
you conceive, with your philosophical head, that one can be absent
from the class and not know the lesson at the same time? Is it a fact
that absence necessarily implies knowledge? What do you say to that,
philosophaster?"

This last epithet was the drop of water that made the full cup
overflow. Placido enjoyed among his friends the reputation of being
a philosopher, so he lost his patience, threw down his book, arose,
and faced the professor.

"Enough, Padre, enough! Your Reverence can put all the marks against me
that you wish, but you haven't the right to insult me. Your Reverence
may stay with the class, I can't stand any more." Without further
farewell, he stalked away.

The class was astounded; such an assumption of dignity had scarcely
ever been seen, and who would have thought it of Placido Penitente? The
surprised professor bit his lips and shook his head threateningly as he
watched him depart. Then in a trembling voice he began his preachment
on the same old theme, delivered however with more energy and more
eloquence. It dealt with the growing arrogance, the innate ingratitude,
the presumption, the lack of respect for superiors, the pride that
the spirit of darkness infused in the young, the lack of manners,
the absence of courtesy, and so on. From this he passed to coarse
jests and sarcasm over the presumption which some good-for-nothing
"prompters" had of teaching their teachers by establishing an academy
for instruction in Castilian.

"Aha, aha!" he moralized, "those who the day before yesterday scarcely
knew how to say, 'Yes, Padre,' 'No, Padre,' now want to know more
than those who have grown gray teaching them. He who wishes to learn,
will learn, academies or no academies! Undoubtedly that fellow who
has just gone out is one of those in the project. Castilian is in good
hands with such guardians! When are you going to get the time to attend
the academy if you have scarcely enough to fulfill your duties in the
regular classes? We wish that you may all know Spanish and that you
pronounce it well, so that you won't split our ear-drums with your
twist of expression and your 'p's'; [32] but first business and then
pleasure: finish your studies first, and afterwards learn Castilian,
and all become clerks, if you so wish."

So he went on with his harangue until the bell rang and the class was
over. The two hundred and thirty-four students, after reciting their
prayers, went out as ignorant as when they went in, but breathing more
freely, as if a great weight had been lifted from them. Each youth had
lost another hour of his life and with it a portion of his dignity and
self-respect, and in exchange there was an increase of discontent,
of aversion to study, of resentment in their hearts. After all this
ask for knowledge, dignity, gratitude!

_De nobis, post haec, tristis sententia fertur_!

Just as the two hundred and thirty-four spent their class hours,
so the thousands of students who preceded them have spent theirs,
and, if matters do not mend, so will those yet to come spend theirs,
and be brutalized, while wounded dignity and youthful enthusiasm
will be converted into hatred and sloth, like the waves that become
polluted along one part of the shore and roll on one after another,
each in succession depositing a larger sediment of filth. But yet He
who from eternity watches the consequences of a deed develop like a
thread through the loom of the centuries, He who weighs the value
of a second and has ordained for His creatures as an elemental
law progress and development, He, if He is just, will demand a
strict accounting from those who must render it, of the millions of
intelligences darkened and blinded, of human dignity trampled upon
in millions of His creatures, and of the incalculable time lost and
effort wasted! And if the teachings of the Gospel are based on truth,
so also will these have to answer--the millions and millions who do
not know how to preserve the light of their intelligences and their
dignity of mind, as the master demanded an accounting from the cowardly
servant for the talent that he let be taken from him.


[29] "To lie about the stars is a safe kind of lying."--Tr.

[30] Throughout this chapter the professor uses the familiar _tu_
in addressing the students, thus giving his remarks a contemptuous
tone.--Tr.

[31] The professor speaks these words in vulgar dialect.

[32] To confuse the letters _p_ and _f_ in speaking Spanish was a
common error among uneducated Filipinos.--Tr.



Sunday, May 27, 2012

First Things First: A Commentary on K+12

Note:

“We call it officially ‘K to 12’ not ‘K+12’.”

This is what Department of Education Secretary Armin Luistro said while explaining the department’s preference for “K to 12” to refer to DepEd’s flagship “Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program.”

While there are several variations of the 12-year basic education model used abroad with different names such as “K-12”, “K+12”, and “K12”, Luistro said that the DepEd Steering Committee preferred the use of “K to 12” as it “captures the fact that not all features are new.”

He said that “K+12” may “mislead people that it’s only 12 years and not a total of 13.”
The term “K-12”, on the other hand, is not also used because “it sometimes read wrongly as ‘K minus 12’,” said Luistro. (http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/358626/deped-it-s-k-to-12)

K to 12, K-12 or K+12....  What does matter? Should the public be simply debating the name of the curriculum or should we not dissect it to find its elements and weigh each one to see if these changes are indeed justified. Discussions or debates on the new curriculum have narrowly focused on the two additional years at the end of high school. The first of these two additional years will not happen until 2016. In the meantime, several elements will, this coming June. The article below examines these elements and demonstrates that most of these were not based on data.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

First Things First:  A Commentary on K+12 
Published in two parts in Philippine Star:
http://www.philstar.com/science-and-technology/798002/first-things-first-commentary-k12
http://www.philstar.com/science-and-technology/800468/first-things-first-commentary-k12

The basic education system of thePhilippinesfaces two major problems: (1) high dropout rates in primary and secondary schools, and (2) lack of mastery of specific skills and content as reflected in poor performance in standard tests for both Grade IV and Grade VIII (2nd year high school) students. Unfortunately, the proposed K+12 curriculum does not directly address these problems. Both dropout rate and poor performance in standard exams indicate failure in the early years of education. That these problems are caused by a congested 10-year curriculum is not strongly supported by currently available data. The international standard tests take into account both years of education and basic skills.  The standard tests ensure that students from all the participating countries had the same number of years of schooling.

The proposed K plus 12 curriculum has various components. It is useful to look at each component in deciding whether it helps address the pressing problems Philippine basic education presently faces:

(1) Kindergarten: This addresses the problems. Early childhood learning when done properly does provide a head start for elementary schools. Kindergarten prepares the child emotionally, physically and mentally for grade school.

(2) No formal subject of science in K to Grade II: This is a waste of a great opportunity. Science education in early childhood is cheap. It does not require elaborate laboratories or equipment.  Young children, in addition, are naturally inquisitive and the years of kinder to grade II are excellent for introduction of basic scientific curiosity and methods. Only having science as a formal subject can ensure that science will indeed be covered.

(3) Use of mother tongue as medium of instruction: This is very expensive. It requires competent teachers who can teach math and science using the mother tongue. There is no objection that the mother tongue must be taught as a subject in elementary schools since this allows a smoother transition from home to school.  The question of what medium should be used in instruction is separate. One medium of instruction can unite the nation. English is the best option since course materials especially from the internet are usually in English. In this respect, Singapore is a good example to follow.

(4) Spiral curriculum: This type of teaching is highly applicable to elementary schools where both science and math are still treated as general approaches.  In high school, both math and science diverge into separate disciplines. A spiral curriculum in high school will require teachers with knowledge in all these areas at a sufficient level. These required teachers are not going to be available in numbers so this program will be poorly implemented. A layered curriculum, on the other hand, is easier to implement – biology is taught in one year, chemistry in the next, physics is usually the last.  In this manner, a high school can operate with a chemistry teacher, a physics teacher and a biology teacher, and each one need not be a master of all three disciplines.

(5) Discovery-based learning: This type of learning requires longer hours and fails without sufficient guidance (see “An Analysis of the Failure of Electronic Media and Discovery Based Learning”,Clark, et al. (2009)
http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/clark_etal_2009_analysis_of_the_failure_of_electronic_media.pdf). The ideal is a mix between traditional and inquiry based methods.  This is usually achieved in the sciences by having separate lecture and laboratory components.  Guidance is provided during lectures and students work on their own or as a group in the laboratory.

(6) Last but not the least (in fact, this point is crucial), the proposed K plus 12 curriculum also involves short school hours.  This seems to be an attempt to enable multiple shifts in the schools.  This goes against decongesting the curriculum. It likewise does not make it worthwhile for schoolchildren especially those who have to travel far to attend school.  This also opens opportunities for child labor as well as greater environmental (outside of school) influences on children education. Elementary schools in the US are full day so that students do have time to cover the material and, at the same time, it allows parents to work and be more productive.  A full day in school means less television, less video games, less time on the streets, and less other activities that do not contribute to a sound education of the young.

Most countries have only ten years of compulsory education. Compulsory education in the US varies from state to state, but the average requires anyone who is under 16 years of age to be either enrolled in a school or home-schooled. This means that on average, the US only has 10-11 (including kindergarten) years of compulsory education. The last two years in the US K-12 education already include courses in tertiary education. These are called advanced placement (AP) or international baccalaureate (IB) courses. Examples are calculus (up to multivariable) and AP chemistry. Students who take AP chemistry usually have already finished one year of basic chemistry and one year of advanced chemistry, so in sum, a student could have taken three years of chemistry while in high school. Some schools in the US can not offer these, and consequently, there is great heterogeneity among US schools.

Addressing basic education is a matter of prioritization. Adding kindergarten and two years to high school is estimated to cost more than 100 billion pesos.  On the other hand, to solve the two pressing problems, as UNESCO has advised, 6% of the GDP must be assigned to education. At the current funding (2.3% of GDP) of the Department of Education (DepEd), additional years will only lead to a greater demand for resources.  Adding two years to high school essentially increases the needs of a high school by 50% – teachers, classrooms, desks, toilets, learning materials, etc.  The DepEd can only answer less than half of what UNESCO deems is necessary for the 10-year basic education program. Adding two more years will stretch the budget of DepEd even further.

Implementing a new curriculum requires strong leadership at the school level. The success of a school depends a lot on the principal. A significant fraction of public schools in the Philippines currently do not have a principal or a head teacher. This clearly needs to be addressed first before any reform in curriculum is initiated. Otherwise, a new curriculum has no hope of being implemented successfully.

 Instead of trying to attack the problem at the end of high school, efforts must be focused on the early years of education. This is where the dropout rate begins to escalate and these are the years where students are failing to learn as diagnosed by the standard test scores. Resources are very much needed in the first ten years of education and kindergarten and DepEd can do a better job on these years if DepEd does not have to worry about the added senior years in high school. The government should allow its citizens to work out on their own a solution for the desired two years that aim to prepare students either for college or the workforce. College preparatory schools or community colleges can do this job and TESDA could address those who are leaning towards vocational training.

For any overwhelming policy that involves dramatic changes and budget requirements, it is important that the policy is based on good data and statistics.  The Philippines, with its financial condition, cannot afford to waste. The ten-year basic education program can work as demonstrated by a Philippine school in Qatar(see “Do Filipino schools make the grade?” http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/130893-do-filipino-schools-make-the-grade.html) The Philippine school at Doha, Qatar participated in PISA 2009 and their scores were: Science (466), Math: (461) andReading: (480). These scores place the Philippines near the average scores of participating countries.

 The problems concerning basic education that developing countries face are enormous and complex.  A few years from now, the international donor community will look at how close governments they have funded to improve education have reached the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). It is highly likely that the Philippines will not meet the second item in the MDG, universal primary education:
MDG (2nd bullet under item 19):

“We resolve that…
….To ensure that, by the same date (2015), children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will have equal access to all levels of education.”
(http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf)

With regard to this goal, here are the indicators for thePhilippines: Percentage of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5, both sexes (last updated: 09 Aug 2011): 2001 (75.3), 2002 (73.4), 2003 (72.2), 2004 (71.5), 2005 (70.4), 2006 (73.2), 2007 (75.3)
(see http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/SeriesDetail.aspx?srid=591&crid=608) Other data have been summarized, for example, in the following article in Business World:
http://www.bworldonline.com/Research/economicindicators.php?id=0498. It is understandable that the Philippine government is under tremendous pressure and it seems that a magic potion is required. However, what is lacking in most of the components proposed is a thoughtful and careful consideration of evidence and data. It is unfortunate that amidst the lack of sound evidence, although this paucity in data has been emphasized and repeated so many times in published reviews and articles, various components have been incorporated in the K+12 plan with “panacea” stamped on them.  The following paragraphs highlight specific examples.

 The mother tongue based multiple language education (MTBMLE) is one example. In 2009, the US Supreme Court issued an opinion (Horne vs.Flores) that Structured English Immersion (SEI) works better than bilingual education.  It was a narrow decision (5 against 4) so it is not a clear judgment against MTBMLE, but it sure is a clear sign that MTBMLE is not “panacea”.  Recent news from the state ofCaliforniaalso indicates that multilingual education is likewise not working well (see “English-Learning Students Far Behind Under English-Only Methods”
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/25/english-learning-students_n_1030990.html). The world experts in MTBMLE are careful in promoting MTBMLE.  To make a strong case in favor of MTBMLE, data must show that high dropout rates are unquestionably due to using a second language as medium of instruction (Smits et al., 2008,  http://www.google.com/url?sa=D&q=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001787/178702e.pdf&usg=AFQjCNGSnXhP_wNvmcAOpNCrDC6OZmuFhw ). I strongly recommend taking a closer look at Table A.1 of this study by Smits et al. because this
contains data pertinent to the Philippines. Specifically, the paper states: “The figures presented in columns 4 and 8 of the table give an indication of the part of the attendance differences that is due to differences in the background characteristics. For both age groups the reduction is 25 percent or more in 13 of the 22 countries. So in the majority of countries the background characteristics play a role of importance. This result provides support for hypothesis H1.” Hypothesis H1 of this paper is “The differences in educational outcomes among linguistic groups are (partly) due to socioeconomic differences and/or differences in urbanization of the place of living among the groups.” The Philippines lists 45 and 48% in columns 4 and 8, respectively. In this light, the Philippines is among the three odd countries listed that show very strong correlation between school retention and socioeconomic factors, the others are Ghana and Peru.  In Table B1, page 41 of the paper, data from the Philippines clearly suggest that the various language groups in the country do not differ from each other in a significant manner in terms of dropout rates.

Another aspect of the K+12 plan that has been promoted without scrutiny is the length of instructional hours.  This is intimately related to multiple shifts in schools.  This area, as experts have warned, is likewise characterized by scarce good data.  There are large amounts of data that contain information regarding the length of instruction and learning outcomes, but these data involve so many additional factors.  Nonetheless. amidst these complicated cases, one thing is clear: “….the amount of time spent engaged in learning tasks is related to student performance….”(Abadzi, ” Instructional Time Loss in Developing Countries: Concepts, Measurement, and Implications” World Bank Res Obs (2009) 24 (2): 267-290, http://wbro.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/2/267.full.pdf) The issue of multiple shifts is important and could be a significant factor determining learning and one that definitely warrants a careful study. I know that anecdotal instances are not of any help, but when I was in grade school, I have always wondered why the top six students from the graduating class always came from the morning shift.  In high schools, it was worse, students were placed in sections according to their past year’s performance, and the lower the section was, the later their shift was. In a school where three shifts were employed, the poorest of the learners took the late-afternoon-evening shift. Now, these are all anecdotal but these instances illustrate that these factors need to be studied carefully.

Would it satisfy the international donor community that the Philippines would embark on a heroic last minute effort?  My answer is that this question is the wrong one to ask.  The Philippine government must do what is good for its citizens.

“The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent Georgetown University.”

Education Statistics - Philippines




Public Elementary Schools

Year
Number of students
(millions)
Number of teachers
(thousands)
Pupil:Teacher ratio
2003a
12.1
338
36
2006b
12.1
344
35
2009c
12.8
358
36
2010d
13.0
362
36
2011e
14.3




Public Secondary Schools

Year
Number of students
(millions)
Number of teachers
(thousands)
Pupil:Teacher ratio
2003a
5.0
121
42
2006b
5.0
128
39
2009c
5.5
143
38
2010d
5.6
146
38
2011e
5.9



aDepartment of Education, Basic Education Information System, Quick Counts Data, SY 2003-2004
b Department of Education, Basic Education Information System, Quick Counts Data, SY 2006-2007
chttp://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Philippines.pdf
dhttp://www.deped.gov.ph/factsandfigures/default.asp
ehttp://www.gov.ph/2011/06/05/deped-schools-ready-to-accommodate-25-7-million-students-tomorrow/
____________________________________________________________________________________________________
 The following are detailed analysis of resources in public schools in the Philippines for two school periods, 2003-2004 and 2006-2007


Public Elementary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2003-2004, Teacher Deployment Analysis



Nationally-
Pupil-


Region / SchDivName
Enrolment
Funded
Teacher
Color Code


Teachers
Ratio














REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
613,611
20,836
29.45

Sky blue
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
442,765
14,087
31.43

Green
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
1,193,556
32,401
36.84

Yellow
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
1,355,802
32,644
41.53

Gold
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
429,349
11,919
36.02

Yellow
REGION V - BICOL REGION
879,636
26,076
33.73

Green
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
1,010,647
31,874
31.71

Green
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
918,766
24,244
37.90

Yellow
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
656,356
20,710
31.69

Green
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
527,988
15,731
33.56

Green
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
616,844
16,974
36.34

Yellow
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
603,772
16,017
37.70

Yellow
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
540,682
13,776
39.25

Yellow
CARAGA
369,596
11,006
33.58

Green
ARMM
543,623
13,490
40.30

Gold
CAR
217,313
7,509
28.94

Sky blue
NCR
1,141,369
28,303
40.33

Gold






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
12,061,675
337,597
35.73

Yellow


Public Elementary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2003-2004, Instructional Room Analysis



Instructional
Pupil:


Region / SchDivName
Enrolment
Rooms
Room
Color Code



Ratio














REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
613,611
21,910
28.01

Blue
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
442,765
14,866
29.78

Blue
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
1,193,556
33,443
35.69

Blue
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
1,355,802
30,990
43.75

Blue
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
429,349
11,980
35.84

Blue
REGION V - BICOL REGION
879,636
25,407
34.62

Blue
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
1,010,647
31,524
32.06

Blue
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
918,766
24,298
37.81

Blue
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
656,356
20,655
31.78

Blue
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
527,988
14,478
36.47

Blue
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
616,844
16,868
36.57

Blue
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
603,772
15,455
39.07

Blue
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
540,682
13,328
40.57

Blue
CARAGA
369,596
10,838
34.10

Blue
ARMM
543,623
11,436
47.54

Yellow
CAR
217,313
8,004
27.15

Blue
NCR
1,141,369
14,603
78.16

Red






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
12,061,675
320,083
37.68

Blue

Public Elementary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2003-2004, Furniture Analysis



Total
Pupil:


Region / SchDivName
Enrolment
Seating
Seating
Color Code


Capacity
Ratio














REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
613,611
616,615
1.00

Yellow
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
442,765
431,619
1.03

Gold
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
1,193,556
1,116,996
1.07

Gold
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
1,355,802
1,191,442
1.14

Gold
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
429,349
328,014
1.31

Gold
REGION V - BICOL REGION
879,636
649,896
1.35

Gold
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
1,010,647
894,223
1.13

Gold
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
918,766
848,681
1.08

Gold
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
656,356
614,601
1.07

Gold
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
527,988
450,989
1.17

Gold
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
616,844
528,859
1.17

Gold
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
603,772
479,856
1.26

Gold
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
540,682
415,969
1.30

Gold
CARAGA
369,596
378,332
0.98

Yellow
ARMM
543,623
285,072
1.91

Gold
CAR
217,313
222,826
0.98

Yellow
NCR
1,141,369
645,146
1.77

Gold






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
12,061,675
10,099,136
1.19

Gold

Public Secondary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2003-2004, Teacher Deployment Analysis



Nationally-
Student:


SchDivName
Enrolment
Funded
Teacher
Color Code


Teachers
Ratio














REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
305,338
8,302
36.78

Yellow
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
195,404
4,759
41.06

Gold
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
500,602
11,228
44.59

Gold
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
584,907
11,976
48.84

Orange
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
170,693
4,266
40.01

Yellow
REGION V - BICOL REGION
339,176
8,811
38.49

Yellow
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
470,632
12,620
37.29

Yellow
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
379,215
7,289
52.03

Red
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
240,574
5,891
40.84

Gold
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
193,549
4,827
40.10

Gold
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
220,829
5,097
43.33

Gold
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
246,719
5,853
42.15

Gold
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
224,133
4,972
45.08

Orange
CARAGA
149,513
3,379
44.25

Gold
ARMM
120,701
2,286
52.80

Red
CAR
92,165
2,637
34.95

Green
NCR
591,806
16,492
35.88

Yellow






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
5,025,956
120,685
41.65

Gold

Public Secondary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2003-2004, Instructional Room Analysis



Instructional
Student :


SchDivName
Enrolment
Rooms
Room
Color Code



Ratio














REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
305,338
6,141
49.72

Yellow
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
195,404
4,043
48.33

Yellow
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
500,602
8,052
62.17

Red
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
584,907
8,076
72.43

Red
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
170,693
2,975
57.38

Red
REGION V - BICOL REGION
339,176
6,007
56.46

Red
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
470,632
8,998
52.30

Gold
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
379,215
5,803
65.35

Red
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
240,574
4,638
51.87

Gold
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
193,549
3,284
58.94

Red
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
220,829
3,539
62.40

Red
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
246,719
3,683
66.99

Red
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
224,133
3,518
63.71

Red
CARAGA
149,513
2,510
59.57

Red
ARMM
120,701
1,995
60.50

Red
CAR
92,165
1,925
47.88

Yellow
NCR
591,806
7,256
81.56

Red






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
5,025,956
82,443
60.96

Red

Public Secondary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2003-2004, Furniture Analysis



Total
Student :


SchDivName
Enrolment
Seating
Seating
Color Code


Capacity
Ratio














REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
305,338
227,462
1.34

Gold
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
195,404
130,503
1.50

Gold
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
500,602
355,416
1.41

Gold
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
584,907
364,685
1.60

Gold
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
170,693
92,215
1.85

Gold
REGION V - BICOL REGION
339,176
191,820
1.77

Gold
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
470,632
320,219
1.47

Gold
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
379,215
233,991
1.62

Gold
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
240,574
173,676
1.39

Gold
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
193,549
115,595
1.67

Gold
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
220,829
124,123
1.78

Gold
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
246,719
142,120
1.74

Gold
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
224,133
138,207
1.62

Gold
CARAGA
149,513
89,059
1.68

Gold
ARMM
120,701
84,231
1.43

Gold
CAR
92,165
69,739
1.32

Gold
NCR
591,806
342,006
1.73

Gold






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
5,025,956
3,195,067
1.57

Gold

Public Elementary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2006-2007, Teacher Deployment Analysis


Total
Nationally-
Pupil:


Region / School Division Name
Elementary
Funded
Teacher
Color Code

Enrolment
Teachers
Ratio








REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
607,670
21,078
28.83

Sky blue
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
427,279
14,342
29.79

Sky blue
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
1,212,667
33,143
36.59

Yellow
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
1,407,012
33,793
41.64

Gold
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
434,046
12,085
35.92

Yellow
REGION V - BICOL REGION
898,609
26,126
34.40

Green
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
980,056
32,216
30.42

Green
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
901,915
24,883
36.25

Yellow
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
656,036
21,105
31.08

Green
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
525,279
15,931
32.97

Green
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
595,712
17,311
34.41

Green
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
580,809
16,304
35.62

Yellow
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
548,743
14,210
38.62

Yellow
CARAGA
355,156
11,220
31.65

Green
ARMM
564,803
13,354
42.29

Gold
CAR
210,520
7,618
27.63

Sky blue
NCR
1,177,665
28,909
40.74

Gold






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
12,083,977
343,628
35.17

Yellow


Public Elementary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2006-2007, Instructional Room Analysis


Total
Instrc'l.
Pupil:


Region / School Division Name
Elementary
Rooms
Room
Color Code

Enrolment

Ratio








REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
607,670
21,881
27.77

Blue
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
427,279
14,926
28.63

Blue
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
1,212,667
34,130
35.53

Blue
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
1,407,012
32,488
43.31

Blue
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
434,046
12,047
36.03

Blue
REGION V - BICOL REGION
898,609
25,083
35.83

Blue
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
980,056
31,643
30.97

Blue
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
901,915
24,110
37.41

Blue
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
656,036
20,604
31.84

Blue
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
525,279
15,108
34.77

Blue
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
595,712
16,773
35.52

Blue
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
580,809
15,400
37.71

Blue
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
548,743
13,524
40.58

Blue
CARAGA
355,156
10,506
33.81

Blue
ARMM
564,803
11,736
48.13

Yellow
CAR
210,520
7,984
26.37

Blue
NCR
1,177,665
14,935
78.85

Red






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
12,083,977
322,878
37.43

Blue


Public Elementary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2006-2007, Furniture Analysis


Total
Total
Pupil:


Region / School Division Name
Elementary
Seating
Seating
Color Code

Enrolment
Capacity
Ratio








REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
607,670
646,149
0.94

Yellow
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
427,279
443,501
0.96

Yellow
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
1,212,667
1,202,690
1.01

Gold
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
1,407,012
1,364,300
1.03

Gold
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
434,046
337,232
1.29

Gold
REGION V - BICOL REGION
898,609
699,270
1.29

Gold
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
980,056
978,936
1.00

Yellow
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
901,915
925,280
0.97

Yellow
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
656,036
681,609
0.96

Yellow
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
525,279
527,759
1.00

Yellow
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
595,712
543,251
1.10

Gold
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
580,809
538,021
1.08

Gold
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
548,743
477,422
1.15

Gold
CARAGA
355,156
398,584
0.89

Green
ARMM
564,803
314,044
1.80

Gold
CAR
210,520
255,042
0.83

Green
NCR
1,177,665
739,171
1.59

Gold






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
12,083,977
11,072,261
1.09

Gold


Public Secondary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2006-2007, Teacher Deployment Analysis


Total
Nationally-
Student:


Region / School Division Name
Secondary
Funded
Teacher
Color Code

Enrolment
Teachers
Ratio








REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
296,671
8,610
34.46

Green
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
189,963
5,130
37.03

Yellow
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
523,864
12,300
42.59

Gold
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
616,604
13,114
47.02

Orange
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
167,860
4,465
37.59

Yellow
REGION V - BICOL REGION
339,649
9,262
36.67

Yellow
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
459,505
13,019
35.29

Yellow
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
361,868
8,265
43.78

Gold
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
249,008
6,298
39.54

Yellow
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
190,437
5,070
37.56

Yellow
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
209,584
5,459
38.39

Yellow
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
227,228
6,083
37.35

Yellow
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
210,267
5,337
39.40

Yellow
CARAGA
144,142
3,731
38.63

Yellow
ARMM
136,897
2,832
48.34

Orange
CAR
87,058
2,663
32.69

Green
NCR
617,478
16,738
36.89

Yellow






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
5,028,083
128,376
39.17

Yellow


Public Secondary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2006-2007, Instructional Room Analysis


Total
Instrc'l.
Student:


Region / School Division Name
Secondary
Rooms
Room
Color Code

Enrolment

Ratio








REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
296,671
6,562
45.21

Blue
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
189,963
4,495
42.26

Blue
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
523,864
9,341
56.08

Red
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
616,604
9,417
65.48

Red
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
167,860
3,302
50.84

Yellow
REGION V - BICOL REGION
339,649
6,611
51.38

Gold
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
459,505
9,596
47.89

Yellow
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
361,868
6,244
57.95

Red
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
249,008
4,873
51.10

Gold
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
190,437
3,583
53.15

Gold
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
209,584
3,946
53.11

Gold
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
227,228
4,140
54.89

Gold
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
210,267
3,733
56.33

Red
CARAGA
144,142
2,725
52.90

Gold
ARMM
136,897
2,174
62.97

Red
CAR
87,058
2,029
42.91

Blue
NCR
617,478
7,536
81.94

Red






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
5,028,083
90,307
55.68

Gold


Public Secondary Schools, Department of Education, Basic Education Information System,
Quick Counts Data, SY 2006-2007, Furniture Analysis


Total
Total
Student:


Region / School Division Name
Secondary
Seating
Seating
Color Code

Enrolment
Capacity
Ratio








REGION I - ILOCOS REGION
296,671
256,001
1.16

Gold
REGION II - CAGAYAN VALLEY
189,963
158,981
1.19

Gold
REGION III - CENTRAL LUZON
523,864
444,548
1.18

Gold
REGION IV-A (CALABARZON)
616,604
460,166
1.34

Gold
REGION IV-B (MIMAROPA)
167,860
109,666
1.53

Gold
REGION V - BICOL REGION
339,649
221,944
1.53

Gold
REGION VI - WESTERN VISAYAS
459,505
377,304
1.22

Gold
REGION VII - CENTRAL VISAYAS
361,868
297,082
1.22

Gold
REGION VIII - EASTERN VISAYAS
249,008
196,706
1.27

Gold
REGION IX - ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA
190,437
140,290
1.36

Gold
REGION X - NORTHERN MINDANAO
209,584
160,868
1.30

Gold
REGION XI - DAVAO REGION
227,228
185,480
1.23

Gold
REGION XII - SOCCSKSARGEN
210,267
162,663
1.29

Gold
CARAGA
144,142
123,678
1.17

Gold
ARMM
136,897
81,413
1.68

Gold
CAR
87,058
78,523
1.11

Gold
NCR
617,478
409,895
1.51

Gold






TOTAL, PHILIPPINES
5,028,083
3,865,208
1.30

Gold


Teacher Deployment Analysis
Pupil-Teacher Ratio
Color Code
Remarks
Less than 25 
 Blue
Excessive surplus teacher provision
25.00 – 29.99
 Sky Blue
Surplus teacher provision
30.00 – 34.99
 Green
Generous teacher provision
35.00 – 39.99
 Yellow
National mean ratio
40.00 – 44.99
 Gold
Manageable ratio
45.00 – 49.99
 Orange
Moderate teacher shortage
More than 50.00
 Red
Severe teacher shortage
No Teacher Available
 Black
No nationally funded teachers


Instructional Room  Analysis
Pupil-Teacher Ratio
Color Code
Remarks
Less than 46
 Blue
Meet Republic Act 7880 with one shift
46.00 – 50.99
 Yellow
Fails to meet RA 7880 with one shift
51.00 – 55.99
 Gold
Does not meet RA 7880 even with double shifting
More than 56
 Red
Does not meet RA 7880, schools with severe shortage of classrooms
No Classroom Available
 Black
No existing instructional rooms


Furniture Analysis
Pupil-Teacher Ratio
Color Code
Remarks
Less than 0.49
 Blue
Two-seats per pupil even in one-shift schools
0.50 – 0.69
 Sky Blue
Surplus seat provision
0.70 – 0.89
 Green
Generous seat provision
0.90 – 1.00
 Yellow
Adequate in one-shift schools
1.01 – 1.99
 Gold
Adequate in two-shift schools
2.00 – 2.99
 Orange
More than 2 pupils per seat; Inadequate in two-shift schools
More than 3.00
 Red
More than 3 pupils per seat; Severe shortage in two-shift schools
No Seats Available
 Black
No existing seats